Authentic Worship

31 October 2021
Book: Mark

Speaker: Austin Rammell

Audio Download

Bible Passage: Mark 14:1-9

Do we worship Christ out of convenience or is our life consumed with knowing, following, and proclaiming His glory? Today, we’re going to look at what defines authentic worship. #SalvationDawns

Authentic Worship

Dawn is the confluence of night and day, and it creates a contrast that is beautiful. The sky radiates with all kinds of colors as the sun pushes around the curvature of the earth; catching the clouds in the air on its way to light our path and warm the ground. Darkness fades as light crescendos. The sounds of life take over the silence. Every hunter and fisherman, every early morning runner and cyclist knows and appreciates its spectacle. Throughout this third part of The Story of Jesus, we are going to see this reality played out over and over – light gloriously breaking through the darkness with vivid contrast. As Christ’s church shines the light of Jesus in a dark world, it is a contrast that is ever-present in today’s world as well. It’s a contrast even in our own lives as Christ’s light shines into the darkness of our hearts.

So today we begin our march through the last part of the Gospel of Mark with a story that will demonstrate that contrast, as will every story from here on out. 

But, to appreciate the true beauty and sincerity in today’s story, to really see the vivid contrast, I need to take you back in time to something Mark’s Gospel didn’ tell us, but other Gospel writers did.

During the traveling ministry of Jesus, He ate in people’s houses all the time. On one such occasion, He stopped in a town about two miles outside of Jerusalem called Bethany and was invited to dinner by a woman named Martha. Luke records,

38 Now as they went on their way, Jesus entered a village. And a woman named Martha welcomed him into her house. 39 And she had a sister called Mary, who sat at the Lord’s feet and listened to his teaching. 40 But Martha was distracted with much serving. And she went up to him and said, “Lord, do you not care that my sister has left me to serve alone? Tell her then to help me.” 41 But the Lord answered her, “Martha, Martha, you are anxious and troubled about many things,42 but one thing is necessary. Mary has chosen the good portion, which will not be taken away from her.” (Luke 10:38-42)

So Mary of Bethany, Martha’s sister, already realized Jesus of Nazareth is more than just another teacher. She realized impressing Him with works was way less important, and even less sensical, than taking every second she had to actually listen to what Jesus was teaching. Now, this is key. It was not only Mary’s heart that realized trying to impress everybody with her acts of service was silly; not only Mary’s heart of realizing it wasn’t about her personal sense of fulfillment in doing a bunch of things that made her feel valuable; not only Mary’s heart that didn’t prioritize the social standing created and sustained by how well you hosted guests (hospitality being a big deal in those days); but rather, Mary of Bethany’s priority was being with Jesus, and, get this, listening to Him, something so few others, including the Disciples, truly did!

Nonetheless, when Jesus left Bethany he left with a true connection to their entire family, including their brother Lazarus. It was a meaningful friendship that we don’t have details about but we know for a fact truly mattered to Jesus. John named Martha, Mary, and Lazarus as three people that Jesus had genuinely connected with, so much so that it was well known that Jesus deeply cared for them (John 11:5). Therefore, to no surprise then, when Lazarus became deathly ill, the sisters sent word to Jesus to come as fast as He could to heal him.

Meanwhile, things were really heating up with Jesus and the religious leaders, so much so that when Jesus told His disciples it was time to go to Bethany, which again was just two miles outside of Jerusalem, they vehemently disagreed with Him. It was such an intense deal that John 11:16 tells us Thomas sarcastically said to one known as the “Twin,” “Let us go with Him so we may die with him.”

Now, most of you know how that particular story ends. Jesus goes to Bethany and raises Lazarus from the dead. Light bursting through the night. However, what is often overlooked is that John also tells us so many started to come to faith in Christ because of it, that the religious leadership in Jerusalem had a meeting with the High Priest where it was stated,

48 If we let him go on like this, everyone will believe in him, and the Romans will come and take away both our place and our nation.”  (John 11:48)

Therefore, after Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead He left the region and no longer did ministry among the Jews until it came time for Him to come back to Jerusalem. After raising a man from the dead he literally had to leave the region to avoid being captured or killed by the religious leaders before it was the appointed time.

This is where the story meets up with us in Mark. Like a lot of storytellers, Mark is going to interrupt his chronological telling of the events during the final week of Christ’s ministry to emphasize a story that sets us as readers squarely on what is getting ready to take place and squarely on how we should respond. Jesus has not come to Jerusalem to sit on a throne, He has come to hang on a cross. 

Therefore, after telling us about the prophecies Jesus shared with His disciples on the Mount of Olives, Mark turns our attention from what Jesus said about the future destruction of Jerusalem to the immediate reality of His presence at Passover in Jerusalem. Picking up where we left off last week, Mark writes, 

1 It was now two days before the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread. And the chief priests and the scribes were seeking how to arrest him by stealth and kill him, 2 for they said, “Not during the feast, lest there be an uproar from the people.” (Mark 14:1-2)

“Jerusalem was the only place where the Passover could be celebrated, and the festival drew huge crowds, greatly increasing not only the population of the city but also the threat of a Jewish uprising. The Romans, as a consequence, took massive security precautions during festivals.”1

“Passover was a time of intense nationalistic feeling among the people because it called to remembrance their deliverance from slavery in Egypt. Moreover, there were a lot of Galileans in town, and they were noted for being excitable people capable of violence. However distressing, the religious leaders would have to bide their time until the right opportunity came.” 2

“The plotters realized that Jesus had many friends and adherents, especially among the thousands of Galileans attending the festivities.”3

“Mark’s Gospel tells us that the religious establishment had wanted to kill Jesus for some time. Their murderous resolve had unified when he healed the man’s withered hand on the Sabbath (3:6). It dramatically intensified when he cleansed the Temple. So the scribes and chief priests began actively looking for ways to do away with him. When he told the Parable of the Wicked Vineyard Keepers, they looked for a way to arrest him right then, but they were afraid of the crowd (12:12).”4

“The plan to kill Jesus was not new. It was of long-standing (Mark 3:6; 12:7; John 5:18; 7:1, 19, 25; 8:37, 40; 11:53). We may well believe, however, that due to events of recent days the leaders were now more determined than ever to destroy Jesus. Their envy had been increased by the raising of Lazarus from the dead, causing many people to believe in Jesus (John 11:45–53), by the triumphal entry’s effects upon the crowds (Mark 11:1–11), by the cleansing of the temple (11:15–18, 27, 28), by parables which the leaders knew were aimed against them (12:12), and by the woes pronounced against the scribes and Pharisees (12:38–40; cf. Matt. 23).”5

That goes right along with what has been building in the Gospel of Mark, a day-by-day dramatic timeline of an ever-increasing tension in Jerusalem about Jesus. But Mark then throws us a curveball and goes backward in the timeline! Mark takes us to an event that happened before Jesus made His triumphal entry on a Colt. 

An event to make sure we don’t start overthinking the prophecies Jesus told His disciples on the Mount of Olives; an event to make sure we are totally focused on what Jesus has come to do! It is an event so profound and so important that Jesus Himself personally guaranteed that it would be told in every place His story was told! An event that brings us back to how we should be responding to Jesus as we read His story. An event that lets us see what real worship is all about.

So what’s this story? Will you stand with me in honor of God’s Word and I’ll read it to you, then we will go back through it and make sure we understand the significance of it.

3 And while he was at Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he was reclining at table, a woman came with an alabaster flask of ointment of pure nard, very costly, and she broke the flask and poured it over his head. 4 There were some who said to themselves indignantly, “Why was the ointment wasted like that? 5 For this ointment could have been sold for more than three hundred denarii and given to the poor.” And they scolded her. 6 But Jesus said, “Leave her alone. Why do you trouble her? She has done a beautiful thing to me. 7 For you always have the poor with you, and whenever you want, you can do good for them. But you will not always have me. 8 She has done what she could; she has anointed my body beforehand for burial. 9 And truly, I say to you, wherever the gospel is proclaimed in the whole world, what she has done will be told in memory of her.” (Mark 14:3-9)

Mark 14:1-9 teaches 3 truths about authentic worship.

Authentic worship is unrestrained. (14:3)

3 And while he was at Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he was reclining at table, a woman came with an alabaster flask of ointment of pure nard, very costly, and she broke the flask and poured it over his head. 

“while he was at Bethany in the house of Simon the leper” 

“Bethany, a village about two miles from Jerusalem on the eastern side of the Mount of Olives, has been Jesus’ base camp since arriving in Jerusalem”6

“The refreshing incident took place “while he [Jesus] was in Bethany.” Present at the supper were at least fifteen men: Jesus, The Twelve, Lazarus (John 12:2), and a certain Simon, mentioned here in verse 3 and in Matt. 26:6. The idea readily suggests itself that the supper (or “dinner” if one prefers) was prompted by love for the Lord, specifically by gratitude for the raising of Lazarus and for the healing of Simon, the man who had been a leper, is still called “Simon the leper,” but had presumably been healed by Jesus. It was at the home of this Simon that the dinner was given. Martha, the sister of Mary and Lazarus, was serving (John 12:2).”7

“Simon the Leper was presumably known to Mark’s readers, but he is unknown to us. His hosting the gathering indicates that he was a former leper since active leprosy would exclude one from all social occasions. It is probable that Mark’s narrative relates in a somewhat different form the same event of John 12:1–8. If so, Mark’s unnamed woman is Mary, sister of Martha and Lazarus, and Simon could be the father of the three.8

“as he was reclining at table, a woman came”

“As Jesus was dining with Simon, Mary came in and interrupted the meal, which was a breach of Jewish protocol. A woman was allowed to interrupt men at a meal only if she were serving the meal, not for visiting or joining the conversation. However, Mary did not hesitate.”9

“As a rule, it was a breach of etiquette for a Jewish male fellowship to be interrupted by women unless they were serving food. Mark has often reminded us, however, that societal and even Jewish values are not necessarily to be equated with Jesus’ values. In this instance, the woman’s intrusion is commended as a demonstration of faith (so 5:34).”10

Here goes Mary again! The first time Jesus was there Martha was doing all the work and Mary just sat there doing what they all should have been doing, listening to Jesus! However, this time she breaks all kinds of social norms/taboo stuff when she interrupts the men’s dinner meeting! 

She wasn’t restrained by the cultural expectations of women. This was her Savior, this was her God, this is the God, sitting in their home! She could care less about the societal customs that alienated her from the conversation and demanded she go unnoticed! 

But she didn’t just interrupt the conversation, she did something so shocking and so sincere that it totally changed everything taking place; Mary literally shoved aside all masculine precedents, ignored whatever conversation was taking place, and totally took over the room!

“a woman came with an alabaster flask of ointment of pure nard, very costly, and she broke the flask and poured it over his head” 

“Suddenly she breaks the jar and pours its contents down or out over Jesus. According to Matthew and Mark, she pours the perfume out upon or over his head (cf. Ps. 23:5); according to John, she anoints his feet. There is no conflict, for Matthew and Mark clearly indicate that the perfume was poured over Christ’s body (Matt. 26:12; Mark 14:8).”11

“Mark reports that she did not pour out the unguent but smashed the jar itself, which means the vessel could never be used again, thus symbolizing the totality of the gift.”12

“Because she could be satisfied with merely breaking the seal, her destruction of the valuable container further emphasizes the fact that she is holding back nothing of the very expensive perfume that she is lavishing on Jesus.”13

Everything about what Mary did here was unrestrained! There was no concern for being taboo.

To add to this observation, we see in John’s account that she wiped his feet with her hair! “Jewish women considered their hair their glory, and Mary’s letting it down and drying Jesus’ feet with it meant that all her humanity, all her “glory” was devoted to him in worship.”14

There could be no greater symbol of unrestrained worship than Mary using her hair as a towel to wipe away the dirt from the feet of Jesus. Jesus later washed the feet of the disciples and it deeply offended Peter that his master was doing something that should only be done by a servant. Preceding this event, Mary showed the same level of humility and disregard for how others would view her humility and not only washed the feet of Jesus but did so with her hair! 

There was no more holy and humble act available to her to praise the one who had raised her brother from the dead! She could care less about how she was being perceived by others, she was totally unrestrained in that all she cared about was expressing her love and adoration for Jesus. This leads us straight to our 2nd truth.

Authentic worship is consumed with the person of Jesus. (14:4-7)

4 There were some who said to themselves indignantly (angrily), “Why was the ointment wasted like that? 5 For this ointment could have been sold for more than three hundred denarii and given to the poor.” And they scolded her. 

“Here again John gives us further insight because he tells us that Judas Iscariot, the keeper of the money bag, and soon to be Jesus’ betrayer, originated the objection, which the others picked up.”15

“A denarius was a normal day’s wage in Palestine (Matt 20:2). Three hundred denarii were thus equivalent to a year’s earnings.”16

“Think of it: more than a year’s wages gone to waste, enough to feed no less than three hundred families for one whole day, and have something left! And now all was lost. What a shame!”17

There was a cultural practice of doing unique things to care for the poor during Passover. It was very similar to the attitude and focus we see in our culture during Christmas and Thanksgiving. It becomes incredibly popular to help the poor, to the extent that some churches see money spent on Gospel outreach events as a waste. 

Instead of spending money on something to share the Gospel and inspire people to love Jesus, some feel the money should be spent on feeding the poor; both out of love for the poor, as well in hopes of softening their hearts to consider the Gospel. My point is there’s nothing inherently wrong with their criticism at all! From an objective standpoint, it’s fair.

However, we also know that the Disciples had the totally wrong idea of what Christ was doing! They were still arguing over who was going to sit at His right hand in the highest place of honor in the Kingdom. For them, feeding 300 plus families would go a long way to further solidifying Jesus as the Messiah. Building positive momentum for Him and thus a huge help towards their personal desires for prosperity and power. 

Furthermore, they all know the religious leaders were plotting against Jesus, so what better way to turn the tide and make it more difficult for the religious leaders to have Jesus killed than to do something with such huge implications of love and benevolence than to sell a jar of perfume worth a year’s worth of wages and use it to feed the poor! What’s better, keeping Jesus alive to continue preaching or dumping a jar of perfume on him that in a few hours the aroma would start dissipating and eventually not even be noticed. In their eyes what Mary of Bethany did was of no use at all! From this perspective, it was a stupendous waste to dump an entire year’s worth of work on Jesus! 

So Mark records they got angry with her! “Indignantly … And they scolded her.” 

“They rebuked her harshly.” The Greek word behind this phrase, embrimaesthai, is unusually vehement, meaning “to flare the nostrils [in anger].”18

“The Greek indicates that they snorted their indignation like angry horses. How humiliating this was for poor Mary!”19

But my point is this. Mary wasn’t thinking about a ministry strategy. Mary wasn’t even thinking about the poor. Mary wasn’t even concerned about the response of the disciples. I don’t believe she was impressed enough with them to be truly bothered by their rebuke! Why? Because more than anything authentic worship is consumed with the person of Jesus. Therefore, Jesus responded this way,

6 But Jesus said, “Leave her alone. Why do you trouble her? She has done a beautiful thing to me. 7 For you always have the poor with you, and whenever you want, you can do good for them. But you will not always have me. 

Interestingly, nobody was forming a ministry strategy to help the poor until Mary dumped out a year’s worth of earnings on Jesus! Then, all of a sudden, the “great ideas’ ‘ came out. Don’t you love people who sit through all the meetings and say nothing, but then immediately criticize what was done and claim they had a better idea all along! That drives me crazy! You kind of feel like Jesus is pointing that out here. Not one of y’all were talking about the poor until she dumped this out on me and worshiped me, now all of a sudden you are worried about the poor!

But more importantly, Jesus is saying, you guys will have the poor all the time, and you can feed them any day you want, but right now you got me here and that’s not going to last much longer. I’m going to Jerusalem to die!

We must understand that Jesus is not arguing against caring for the poor or against social involvement. The Scriptures celebrate the believers’ service to the needy: “And if anyone gives a cup of cold water to one of these little ones because he is my disciple, I tell you the truth, he will certainly not lose his reward” (Matthew 10:42). “Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this: to look after orphans and widows in their distress and to keep oneself from being polluted by the world” (James 1:27).”20

Jesus is saying this lady, unlike you guys, is consumed with me! You guys are consumed with a mission, with a Kingdom that you hope to get fame and fortune in; but this lady is consumed with one thing – ME! 

Later in the Temple, as we already read in Mark’s Gospel, the Disciples would hear Jesus make it real clear what God’s highest expectations are. The first is to believe God to be who He says is and the next one is to Love the Lord your God with ALL your heart! Love your neighbor is extremely important as well, it was the next on the list, but loving God and being consumed with Him is #1! Mary understood this. Mary’s worship was therefore authentic because she was truly consumed with the person of Jesus! There was no other agenda! It wasn’t worshiping Jesus to make her great, it wasn’t worshiping Jesus to have a great ministry or influence, it wasn’t worshiping Jesus to get money or health – it was just a passion to know and follow and worship the person Jesus – authentic worship!

Authentic worship is driven by what Christ accomplished on the Cross! (14:8-9)

8 She has done what she could; she has anointed my body beforehand for burial. 9 And truly, I say to you, wherever the gospel is proclaimed in the whole world, what she has done will be told in memory of her.”

“The view, accordingly, that Mary’s conscious purpose was to prepare Jesus for burial must not be ruled out.”21

“There seems to be no reason for a clandestine messianic anointing at this point in the Gospel. The combined evidence suggests that this is not a messianic anointing but an unction in preparation for Jesus’ death: “ ‘She poured perfume on my body beforehand to prepare for my burial ” (v. 8).”22

Mark 12 concluded with a little widow lady dropping the only two pennies to her name in the offering at the temple. Jesus pointed to her and her offering as that of a true believer in God. That lady likely had no idea who Jesus was yet, so He wasn’t insinuating that she had that right, rather than her heart was clearly responding to God out of a true understanding of who God is and out of a true understanding of who she is (one totally dependent on Him and one totally trusting of His Love!) 

Fast forward back to our story today. Remember what I told you at the beginning of all of this when Mary first met Jesus. While her sister was running around trying to impress herself and others with all of her services, Mary was actually listening to what Jesus was saying. Jesus consistently taught that He was going to die to pay the penalty of our sin! It is highly likely that Mary actually listened to this and believed Him!

The likelihood of that being true is seen in the fact that she anoints him in a manner that one would anoint a dead body! She knows the wolves are howling in Jerusalem, John even records that the religious leaders wanted to kill Mary’s brother Lazarus in an attempt to undermine the trustworthiness of the miracles Jesus was performing.

So, what was Mary to do in light of what Jesus was going to do? She couldn’t go to the cross for Him, that is a work that only Jesus could do. She couldn’t convince the religious leaders of His innocence, they would have never even let her speak. She couldn’t even convince the Disciples that if He is saying He is getting ready to die then He’s getting ready to die! 

Meanwhile, Christ has raised her brother Lazarus from the dead, and healed a leper named Simon that might be Mary, Martha, and Lazarus’ dad! The disciples were likely seeing the miracles of Jesus in how they advanced His ministry, Mary saw them in how they expressed love towards her! Furthermore, unlike the disciples who didn’t listen to Jesus saying that He was going to Jerusalem to be killed; she was listening! 

So, in her mind, the most reasonable thing she could do was take the most expensive thing she had and show her love and loyalty to Jesus with it! In her brokenness, she realizes the enormity of the one she loves, Jesus, is getting ready to be killed. She is likely imagining that it will not be in any way honorable or painless; therefore, she without hesitation, breaks open the bottle of perfume and anoints Him with tears and brokenness. She anointed him with the opposite of reservations about the price of the perfume, but rather a joy in giving “what she could” to Him because He was getting ready to give everything to her! 

Mary is responding to Jesus for who He has clearly said He is and for what He has clearly said He’s going to do and why! He was going to die for her!

To pull this together let me first share something Kent Hughes wrote about this passage,

“We must ask ourselves, Is my devotion to Christ costing me anything? Is there any ever any deprivation to it? Any inconvenience? “She did what she could.” How about us?”23

CHALLENGE: Do you worship Christ out of convenience or is your life consumed with knowing, following, and proclaiming His glory? One reflects the heart of a person who correctly understands the significance of who God is, as well as who they are; and the other one doesn’t.

The only thought in Mary’s mind about this being expensive is that being expensive made it worth using on Jesus! She was not just unrestrained about offering a sacrifice of this value, she was intentional about it! This was likely an heirloom in her family, both the fragrance and the jar, and she sacrificed it with no hesitation. 

“In asserting that there could be a better use for the money, however, they demean Jesus as well, whom they regard as unworthy of such extravagance.”24

We all too often have a disproportionate response to Christ. We calculate ways to express our love for Him. We give just enough money to say we gave but not too much that we have to consider giving up anything else, that is we don’t budget to give, but rather we budget to get and if we can find a way to fit giving into the equation then we will.

We allow God to occupy a few minutes of our mind over coffee in the morning but after that, we don’t have time.

We allow God to be a topic of conversation when we know it’s safe and accepted.

We allow God to speak to our desires when we believe it will help us achieve them. That is, we want God to show us which house to buy or what job to take but we don’t want God to tell us what to do with the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the boastful pride of life. We don’t want God to speak to us about our desires to tell us no, we just want him to tell us yes!

My point is this, all of these compartmentalized responses to Jesus demonstrate either how little we believe Him to be God or how foolish we are to disregard that He is. All of these compartmentalized responses are completely disproportionate to the majesty of who He is and the glory of what He has done for us!

If we ever truly got a hold of who Jesus is and what He has done for us then we could no longer justify the nominal responses we give Jesus. Our lives would be consumed with Him and defined by Him! I pray with all my heart that you get overwhelmed with Jesus the same way Mary of Bethany did! 

“Her story is part of the “gospel” (good news) because she was a demonstration of what happens in a life touched by the Savior of love.”25

Footnotes

  1. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 412). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  2. Hughes, R. K. (1989). Mark: Jesus, servant and savior (Vol. 2, pp. 144–145). Westchester, IL: Crossway Books.
  3. Hendriksen, W., & Kistemaker, S. J. (1953–2001). Exposition of the Gospel According to Mark (Vol. 10, p. 555). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  4. Hughes, R. K. (1989). Mark: Jesus, servant and savior (Vol. 2, pp. 144–145). Westchester, IL: Crossway Books.
  5. Hendriksen, W., & Kistemaker, S. J. (1953–2001). Exposition of the Gospel According to Mark (Vol. 10, p. 555). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  6. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 412). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  7. Hendriksen, W., & Kistemaker, S. J. (1953–2001). Exposition of the Gospel According to Mark (Vol. 10, p. 558). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  8. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (pp. 412–413). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  9. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 360). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  10. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 413). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  11. Hendriksen, W., & Kistemaker, S. J. (1953–2001). Exposition of the Gospel According to Mark (Vol. 10, p. 558). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  12. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (pp. 413–414). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  13. Hare, D. R. A. (1996). Mark. (P. D. Miller & D. L. Bartlett, Eds.) (p. 183). Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.
  14. Hughes, R. K. (1989). Mark: Jesus, servant and savior (Vol. 2, p. 150). Westchester, IL: Crossway Books.
  15. Hughes, R. K. (1989). Mark: Jesus, servant and savior (Vol. 2, p. 146). Westchester, IL: Crossway Books.
  16. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 413). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  17. Hendriksen, W., & Kistemaker, S. J. (1953–2001). Exposition of the Gospel According to Mark (Vol. 10, p. 559). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  18. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 415). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  19. Hughes, R. K. (1989). Mark: Jesus, servant and savior (Vol. 2, p. 146). Westchester, IL: Crossway Books.
  20. Hughes, R. K. (1989). Mark: Jesus, servant and savior (Vol. 2, p. 148). Westchester, IL: Crossway Books.
  21. Hendriksen, W., & Kistemaker, S. J. (1953–2001). Exposition of the Gospel According to Mark (Vol. 10, p. 560). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  22. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 416). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  23. Hughes, R. K. (1989). Mark: Jesus, servant and savior (Vol. 2, p. 149). Westchester, IL: Crossway Books.
  24. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 414). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  25. Hughes, R. K. (1989). Mark: Jesus, servant and savior (Vol. 2, p. 150). Westchester, IL: Crossway Books.