14 November 2021
Book: Mark

How To Avoid Failure

Bible Passage: Mark 14:26-52

One by one, the disciples turned on Jesus. Could it be just as easy for us to forget about Jesus? #SalvationDawns

How to Avoid Failure

 

When morning dawns and the light begins to race around the curvature of the earth in all its beauty; there are still shadows lurking in valleys and hollows. There are still shadows in caves and canyons, in thickets and under thick canopies. In Mark 4:26-52, the focus isn’t as much on the beauty of the morning sky but the shadows still lurking beneath it, shadows we must be careful to recognize in our own life!

 

In today’s passage, we will see yet another story of contrast. This time it’s between the massive burden Christ is experiencing as He faces the cross, with the total disconnect and lack of empathy from His disciples; the chief example being Judas. There is a total failure to recognize the moment on any level, most prominently from Peter (his pride that blinded him from seeing his own faithlessness) and Judas (his pride that led to the cowardly action of betraying Jesus).

 

As we study this passage it’s going to force us to ask ourselves some very serious questions. Do we see the spiritual battles in front of us and are we engaging them with the weapons needed for the battle or ignoring that there is even a battle and/or potential for failure?

 

 Are we walking through life with the attitude that we have it all together and thus setting ourselves up for an epic failure; either as Peter and the disciples (a heart that wants to believe and follow but lacks the spiritual strength to do so) or Judas (outright aggression and rebellion towards Christ … what we once said we believed in, is now what we oppose). As we stated last week, are we recognizing the magnitude of who Jesus is and what He has done for us; but also, are we recognizing that in the context of the battle we are in! Are we acknowledging the moment?

Mark 14:26-52 contains 4 testimonies of failure.

 

The Disciples failed to see their own limitations. 14:26-31

 

26 And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. 27 And Jesus said to them, “You will all fall away, for it is written, ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered.’ 28 But after I am raised up, I will go before you to Galilee.” 29 Peter said to him, “Even though they all fall away, I will not.” 30 And Jesus said to him, “Truly, I tell you, this very night, before the rooster crows twice, you will deny me three times.” 31 But he said emphatically, “If I must die with you, I will not deny you.” And they all said the same.

 

As noted above, the Passover celebration ended with the singing of a hymn, that is, of one or more of the Hallel Psalms (Psalms 113–118). Jesus and his followers left the old city, but the Torah forbade them from returning to Bethany to sleep; Passover participants were required to remain in the Holy City until morning, in accordance with Deuteronomy 16:7. Because of the large number of pilgrims, however, the ritual boundaries of Jerusalem were extended to include the Mount of Olives as far as Bethphage.”1

 

The first person singular, “ ‘I will strike,’ ” means that God will strike Jesus as the shepherd—or allow him to be struck—in fulfillment of his will. This quotation thus repeats the paradox of 14:21, where evil is used by God to fulfill his greater purpose. The quotation of Zech 13:7 also provides a further glimpse into Jesus’ understanding of his passion: that his suffering is ordained by God; in the words of the Servant of the Lord, “It was the Lord’s will to crush him and cause him to suffer” (Isa 53:10).”2

 

The Greek word for “fall away” (skandalizein) means “to cause to stumble” or “to fall.” It carries a passive sense, that is, it does not mean that the disciples will willfully defect but that external factors will act upon them and cause them to do so. It is, in other words, a lapse rather than an egregious rebellion.”3

 

Jesus warns the disciples to guard against the kind of sinfulness of which most of us are most guilty: sins of weakness and irresoluteness rather than sins of intention. We do not plan on sinning, but neither do we hold the fort when we ought.”4

 

My favorite line from Clint Eastwood as an actor was, “A man’s got to know his limitations.” Peter, in his arrogance, didn’t see the true condition of his heart. Arrogance blinds us to the true condition of the heart. It’s a place we can all get to while claiming to love and follow Jesus and Peter is the case in point! Peter emphatically says that he will die with Jesus before he would ever deny Him, and the rest of the disciples follow his lead and insist on the same thing.

 

The point is this. God, Himself is telling them they are going to fail but they are insistent they will not. That is the height of “not knowing your limitations.” Was amazing in this is Christ is already laying down the foundation for repentance and restoration. He knows they are all going to fail Him (not just Peter) and yet He tells them I’ll see you later! When I’m resurrected, I’m not going to dump you because you failed me but in fact, the opposite is going to happen. I’m going to come to you and fellowship with you and continue to disciple you!

 

The Disciples failed to prioritize their duty. 14:32-42

 

The essential role of a disciple is to labor with their master. To join the master in what he’s doing, what he’s bearing, what he is struggling with. Yet, the disciples not only fail to join Jesus, but they also fail to even recognize what’s going on!

 

32 And they went to a place called Gethsemane. And he said to his disciples, “Sit here while I pray.” 

 

 “Many pilgrims camped close to Jerusalem at Passover time, and it may be that Jesus intended to spend the night in Gethsemane (which means ‘oil press’) instead of returning to Bethany. But there was to be no sleep for him there.”5

Jesus makes it clear to Peter, James, and John that he is in bad shape!

 

33 And he took with him Peter and James and John, and began to be greatly distressed and troubled. 34 And he said to them, “My soul is very sorrowful, even to death. Remain here and watch.” 35And going a little farther, he fell on the ground and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him. 36And he said, “Abba, Father, all things are possible for you. Remove this cup from me. Yet not what I will, but what you will.” 

 

Peter and James and John – “Separating himself from the Twelve, Jesus takes Peter, James, and John (v. 33) to be alone with him. These three disciples form an inner circle among the disciples and figure prominently in Mark on previous special occasions (5:37; 9:2; 13:3). All three have earlier crowed of their mettle (Peter, 14:29–31; James and John, 10:38–39; 14:31); they should be exactly the companions Jesus needs in the crisis before him.”6

 

And he said to them, “My soul is very sorrowful, even to death.

 

Luke tells us His sweat became great drops of blood which flowed so profusely that it fell to the ground (v. 44). Medical science has attested a very few isolated cases of people sweating blood (a phenomenon called hemato hydrosis) and in every instance the person was in extreme mental and emotional anguish; in each case the individual died in a matter of hours. It seems that Christ also suffered this extreme mental and emotional agony, but He alone survived it. While we cannot imagine this mental and spiritual anguish, we can imagine how physically draining it must have been.” 7

 

It is one thing, fearful as it will be, to answer for our own sins before a holy and almighty God; who can imagine what it would be like to stand before God to answer for every sin and crime and act of malice and injury and cowardice and evil in the world?”8

 

The worst prospect of becoming the sin-bearer for humanity is that it spells complete alienation from God, an alienation that will shortly echo above the desolate landscape of Calvary, “ ‘My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?’ ” (15:34). Not his own mortality, but the specter of identifying with sinners so fully as to become the object of God’s wrath against sin—it is this that overwhelms Jesus’ soul “ ‘to the point of death’ ” (v. 34).”9

 

This MASSIVE weight on Jesus is why He cries out, “36And he said, “Abba, Father, all things are possible for you. Remove this cup from me. Yet not what I will, but what you will.” 

 

The sleepy disciples, perhaps especially Peter, must have heard and remembered his words (36) and told Mark, for nobody else was present. They even remembered that Jesus used the intimate Aramaic word ‘Abba’ (which Mark translates) to address God his father (this was later used by the early church; Rom. 8:15). ‘Abba’ is the name which every Jewish child still uses within the home to address his or her father.”10

 

Only in Mark does Jesus call God “Abba,” a term of intimacy, trust, and affection. The other three Gospels simply record the Greek address patēr, “Father.” “Abba” recollects Jesus’ original Aramaic (Rom 8:15; Gal 4:6), displaying an intimacy, boldness, and simplicity in address to God that was not characteristic of Jewish prayers. Seldom, if ever, did rabbis presume such intimacy with God. “Abba” provides crystal clarity into Jesus’ consciousness of being God’s Son, and of his willingness to drink the bitter cup of suffering as an ineluctable consequence of his complete trust in the Father and obedience to his will. His exousia, the divine power and authority that have characterized his life, is now returned to the Father, in trust that the purpose of his life will be consummated in the self surrender of his death.”11

 

So the disciples, particularly the three closest to them, hear the absolute horror in the prayers of Jesus, they see blood coming from his sweat; yet, it seemed to have little to no impact on their actions! You would think if their master is under this kind of burden then they would recognize something insanely crazy is getting ready to happen and we need to be preparing and praying! But the opposite happens.

 

37 And he came and found them sleeping, and he said to Peter, “Simon, are you asleep? Could you not watch one hour? 38 Watch and pray that you may not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.”

 

No wonder Jesus calls the chief apostle “Simon” and not “Peter” (v. 37), for in Gethsemane he has not lived up to his name; he is not a “Rock.”12

 

They have all said they will not fail but in this very moment of being a disciple, one whose job is to literally bear the burden of their master, they are asleep! He’s over there crying out to God with such agony He’s calling Him our equivalent of “Daddy,” His blood vessels are bursting to the point He’s sweating blood, and yet, the guys who have sworn their allegiance, puffed their chests out and insisted on their honor, integrity, and manliness, can’t even stay up and pray for themselves, much less Jesus!

 

But! Jesus has now personally rebuked them. So surely this will awaken them, right? Surely, they will now understand what we said to them the first time? Surely now they will recognize the moment and step up to the plate! Nope!

 

39 And again he went away and prayed, saying the same words. (He continues crying out Abba Father take this cup from me if you will, but if you don’t I’ll do it!) 40 And again he came and found them sleeping, for their eyes were very heavy, and they did not know what to answer him. 41 And he came the third time and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and taking your rest? It is enough; the hour has come. The Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 42 Rise, let us be going; see, my betrayer is at hand.”

 

Three times Jesus came to them and found them totally disconnected from their commitment to Him as His disciples. And again, it’s one thing to have been told to pray before He went off, but Jesus has now come back twice and found them totally disengaged from their duty. But each time He rebuked them and explained to them what they needed to be doing, each time with literal physical evidence of how terrible things were for Him, and yet, not one of the three appeals ever gets through to their head or heart! 

 

So finally, the third time He comes back he tosses His hands in their air and says, well, you guys have totally failed! You’ve failed enough at this point and there is no sense trying anymore because it’s too late, my betrayer is coming. These words had to shock them to the bone, especially when moments later this happened. 

 

Judas failed to have any integrity. (14:43-50)

 

Judas had everybody fooled! He had been at the last supper and his feet had even been washed by Jesus. Jesus had given Judas every opportunity to escape, but Judas had no intention! He was actively plotting to betray Jesus and being aware of where Jesus was going gave Judas his opportunity to betray Him.

 

43 And immediately, while he was still speaking, Judas came, one of the twelve, and with him a crowd with swords and clubs, from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders. 

 

Presumably, the group with swords and clubs was a mixture of members of the temple guard belonging to the Sanhedrin and soldiers of the Roman garrisons stationed in Jerusalem.”13

 

Without the help of Judas, the priests would never have been able to find Jesus among the many groups camped around Jerusalem that night. Those who have seen the crowds of pilgrims camped around temples at a Hindu festival will understand. Even if they had found the place, they would never have been able to find Jesus himself in the darkness, and Judas knew well that his fellow-Galileans might fight. That is why the well-armed temple police were there (not a city mob, as is sometimes suggested). Night arrests of suspects are not unusual; the suspects are off guard, and there is less danger of a rescue by friends or neighbors.”14

 

The Greek text of John 18:3 reads that a cohort of soldiers accompanied Judas; now, as a cohort was the tenth part of a Roman legion, the best part of 600 soldiers plus the temple guard may have been sent to arrest Jesus. The word ‘cohort’ had also come to mean ‘band of soldiers,’ but, as a tribune (a high-ranking officer in charge of 600–1,000 men) led these soldiers (v. 12), ‘cohort’ is best understood literally. Had the band been smaller, the tribune would probably have sent one of the six centurions in his command to lead this detail.”15

 

44 Now the betrayer had given them a sign, saying, “The one I will kiss is the man. Seize him and lead him away under guard.” 45 And when he came, he went up to him at once and said, “Rabbi!” And he kissed him. 

 

Remember there are no streetlights and no cameras to take a picture and hand out to the officers, so it’s key that Judas identifies the actual man.

 

When Judas said the soldiers could lead Jesus away “safely,” he was not expressing the desire that Jesus not be harmed. Judas simply meant that the soldiers could make this arrest with little risk to themselves.”16

 

What an incredible paradox. It was a gesture of profound honor and affection, customarily given by disciples to their rabbi, that Judas used for his evil mission. The language here describes Judas’s kiss as not a brief peck on the cheek, but a kiss lavishly bestowed, signifying an especially deep sense of affection and honor. This kiss was an act of hypocrisy with a vengeance”.17

 

Whatever else the significance of the betrayal kiss, that gesture, along with the honorific title “Rabbi” (= “my great one”), makes a burlesque of Jesus. The manner of betrayal becomes the first example of the mockery of Jesus, which will play a key role in the crucifixion narrative of chap. 15.”18

 

So we see no integrity whatsoever with Judas. What a contrast with how Jesus handles this event! Watch what happens next.

 

46 And they laid hands on him and seized him. 47 But one of those who stood by drew his sword and struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his ear. 

 

Peter wouldn’t do what Jesus said, pray, but now he’s going to draw his sword and take a swing at a servant of the High Priest who is surrounded by 60 elite Roman Soldiers (their version of a SWAT Team) along with a bunch of the Jewish temple guards! Brilliant! Looking at the other Gospels gives us some details and it’s in those details that we see the integrity of Jesus totally contrasted with that of Judas.

 

The one who drew his sword is nameless in Mark’s account. Tradition tells us that Mark was the Apostle Peter’s secretary, and it was Peter’s apostleship that stood behind Mark’s gospel. John identifies the nameless one in his gospel as Peter, the impetuous and impulsive disciple (John 18:10). Mark also does not tell us that Jesus rebuked Peter for attacking the servant or that He picked up the ear and restored it (Luke 22:51). This man whose ear had just been cut off was healed by the very One he was arresting for execution.”19

 

I wonder whether Malchus became a believer; he certainly had grounds for conviction every time his ear itched! The fact that His name was given six decades after the event suggests that he was well known to the initial readers of John (his name does not appear again in the New Testament), so this may indicate that he did indeed place his faith in Jesus as the Messiah.”20

 

Mark then highlights this contrast even more with how Jesus challenged the religious leaders who came with the soldiers.

 

48 And Jesus said to them, “Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs to capture me? 49 Day after day I was with you in the temple teaching, and you did not seize me. But let the Scriptures be fulfilled.” 

 

Jesus is insulting the lack of integrity with the officials. They are arresting him this way to avoid conflict, but it also demonstrates the lack of integrity in all of it. If Jesus had done something “arrest worthy” then why not do it in broad daylight while he was with them in the Temple! Why did you need to work with Judas to sneak out here at night to find me and swoop me away!

 

The Religious leaders have been worried about the crowd’s reaction if they arrested Jesus in broad daylight as He preached in the temple. I don’t believe they feared the actions of the 12; I believe they feared the actions of the mob. 

 

Therefore, they needed to arrest Jesus in a manner that they could control the narrative; where the outcome they wanted (his death) was secured before there could be a counter-movement against it; where they could get the people together who refused to accept that Jesus was the Messiah in a manner that censured those who disagreed with them and as such develop enough rapid momentum to complete his execution without the threat of criticism or revolt. 

 

These men were extremely politically savvy and knew exactly what they needed to do to get this done. We are going to see the massive lack of integrity in this entire process next week, however, there is no greater lack of integrity than with Judas Himself!

 

Judas has dined with Jesus, traveled with Jesus, got sent out by Jesus with a fellow disciple to proclaim the Gospel and cast out demons in the name of Jesus; yet He did all of this with nothing but selfish motives; selfish motives that finally came to grips with the fact he was not going to be rewarded by Jesus the way he wanted to be rewarded. 

 

Therefore he felt justified in maintaining the lie long enough to kiss up to the religious leaders and look for his reward elsewhere! This is total and utter betrayal at the deepest and darkest level. And then to top it off he literally mocks Jesus with a kiss and calls Him “rabbi.” 

 

The disciples failed to demonstrate any loyalty. (14:50-52)

 

We’ve already seen that failed to fulfill their duty as disciples. But remember how not just Peter, but all of them, said we will never deny you! Well, not so fast!

 

50 And they all left him and fled. 51 And a young man followed him, with nothing but a linen cloth about his body. And they seized him, 52 but he left the linen cloth and ran away naked.

 

The climax of the arrest comes in v. 50, “Then everyone deserted him and fled.” This seemingly innocuous statement carries an incriminating wallop. All drank the cup (14:23), all pledged to die with him (14:31), … and all desert! The “all” in v. 50 is made emphatic in Greek by placing it at the end of the sentence: the betrayal of Judas is thus multiplied by the wholesale failure of the disciples; they all abandon Jesus and flee.”21

 

There has been much discussion as to who the young man in this story was. Some have suggested that it was John Mark himself, in whose home the Last Supper may have taken place (the church later met in his mother’s house; Acts 12:12). If the priests could have arrested Jesus’ followers as well as Jesus, no doubt they would have, but they all ran away (50). Probably, that was why Peter feared being recognized in the high priest’s house later. It may, on the other hand, be only an irrelevant memory of Mark’s eyewitness, which Mark alone preserves faithfully. Whoever it was, he too had left Jesus, like all the rest, and run away.”22

 

There are some things we can discern from the text about this strange incident. Presumably, this young man was not one of the twelve. He obviously was a man of means because only the wealthy wore linen coverings under their tunics. The fact that he had on only the linen cloth without the undergarments indicated that he had dressed in haste to come and follow this situation. He probably lived nearby, perhaps in Jerusalem. This is a tantalizing morsel for speculative theologians to chew on, and many of them do so, asking, “Why is this account of this unnamed person in this embarrassing situation included in this gospel?” This young man may have been Mark himself, who was from a family of wealth. Maybe this was Mark’s way of inserting himself into the account, to indicate he was an eyewitness of the things that took place that night. If so, it was a harrowing moment for him, as he was nearly caught. His linen garment was grabbed by one of the soldiers, but he spun away and left his garment, just as Joseph fled from Potiphar’s wife when she clutched his garment, and he escaped by leaving the garment behind (Gen. 39:11–16).”23

 

The fact that Mark is the only Gospel to record this incident is interesting; many scholars conclude from this and from the very personal nature of the incident that this young man was Mark himself, for its purpose seems slight, unless it be for the human author of Mark to say, “I was there!” The Greek word for ‘followed’ indicates close company, so suggests that this young man was specially attached to Jesus, and thus lends tenuous support to this theory. The word for ‘young man’ can include ‘youth,’ so the actor in this incident may have been any age over twelve, but younger than thirty years. If this was Mark, it may be that Judas’ arrival at his home (at which the Last Supper seems to have been held) had wakened him, and that he had then attempted to warn Jesus of the plot against Him. He rushed out in haste, wrapping a bed sheet around his body to cover his nakedness, but did not reach Jesus before Judas, probably not knowing exactly where to find Him. This supposition is fascinating but inconclusive: one fact is plain, however; when this young man fled, Jesus was absolutely alone.”24

 

The point however of the passage is this, “His lack of identity also invites readers to examine their own readiness to abandon Jesus. The prophecy of Amos has come to pass among all of Jesus’ followers: “ ‘Even the bravest of warriors will flee naked on that day,’ declares the Lord” (2:16; also 1 Macc 10:64). “ ‘There is no one righteous, not even one.… All have turned away’ ” (Rom 3:9–12).”25

 

The guy running away naked is telling of the entire bunch. Their lack of faith in who Christ says He really is, their lack of commitment to Him, their lack of courage; all of it is now out there in plain sight for everybody to see! Mark streaking through the campground was just a visual picture of what has now been revealed about the character, faith, and commitment of the rest of the disciples!

Challenge: Are you living in obvious rebellion or foolish denial?

 

Are you in open rebellion but lying to everybody trying to cover it up like Judas? You are betraying the trust others are putting in you because you’re living a life of sin behind closed doors.

 

Or are you the person who saw themselves like the Disciples? Are you living as a person who feels like there is no danger in front of you; that there is no way you could end up in some kind of serious rebellion against God; that there’s no way you would end up wallowing in materialism or trapped in sexual addiction or an affair. 

 

That there’s no way you could get so wrapped up in yourself that you could ruin your marriage, your relationship with your children, or even your relationships with your extended family and friends. You see yourself as so faithful to Christ that you literally can’t recognize any possibility for you to be the guy who ends up bitter and hateful towards his family or bitter and hateful towards God! You see yourself as Peter saw himself!

 

So what do I do?

 

Real quickly, let me give you some practical steps to keep you from ending up where these people ended.

 

Believe the limitations God’s Word says we have!

 

This isn’t to make you live in fear, but rather live a life based on the truth about God and yourself! Galatians 5 makes it clear that if your spirituality is based on your religious performance then all the nasty fruits of our sinful flesh are going to be what your life produces. Stop banking on your religious traditions and false perception of goodness and instead seek to know Jesus! Pursue the knowledge of His love for you so that you love being loved by Him more than anything!

 

Do what Christ commanded even when you don’t feel like it (pray, love others, talk about the Gospel, etc.)

 

 Jesus said if you love me you will obey me. He said point-blank – “follow me.” Faith is not following Jesus when you feel like it. Our duty and our privilege are to labor with Him! We have to trust God’s Word that when we labor with Him when we seek to know and love and follow Him, when we live in His Word not to feed our arrogance but rather to be filled with the knowledge of His will in all wisdom and spiritual understanding; even when we don’t feel like it; that it’s going to result in a foundation and a life full of awesome spiritual fruit! 

Don’t put on a front! Be honest with God and others about your rebellion and/or doubt.

 

Putting on a front with God is stupid! He knows you better than you know yourself and therefore you are not fooling Him! But it’s also crazy to put on a front with others. We can’t help each other if we are lying to each other. We can’t encourage each other if we keep living as if we don’t need it! Be honest!

Footnotes

  1. Hare, D. R. A. (1996). Mark. (P. D. Miller & D. L. Bartlett, Eds.) (p. 190). Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.
  2. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (pp. 428–429). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  3. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 428). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  4. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 428). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  5. Cole, R. A. (1994). Mark. In D. A. Carson, R. T. France, J. A. Motyer, & G. J. Wenham (Eds.), New Bible commentary: 21st century edition (4th ed., pp. 972–973). Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press.
  6. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 432). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  7. Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mt 26:36–Lk 22:46). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
  8. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 433). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  9. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 433). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  10. Cole, R. A. (1994). Mark. In D. A. Carson, R. T. France, J. A. Motyer, & G. J. Wenham (Eds.), New Bible commentary: 21st century edition (4th ed., p. 973). Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press.
  11. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (pp. 433–434). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  12. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 435). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  13. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 376). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  14. Cole, R. A. (1994). Mark. In D. A. Carson, R. T. France, J. A. Motyer, & G. J. Wenham (Eds.), New Bible commentary: 21st century edition (4th ed., p. 973). Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press.
  15. Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mt 26:47–Jn 18:12). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
  16. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 376). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  17. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 376). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  18. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 438). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  19. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 378). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  20. Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mt 26:47–Jn 18:12). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
  21. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 440). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  22. Cole, R. A. (1994). Mark. In D. A. Carson, R. T. France, J. A. Motyer, & G. J. Wenham (Eds.), New Bible commentary: 21st century edition (4th ed., p. 973). Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press.
  23. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 378). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  24. Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mk 14:51–52). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
  25. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (pp. 440–441). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.