12 December 2021
Book: Mark

The Response to the Cross

Bible Passage: Mark 15:16-41

Does your response to Jesus openly mock Him, silently mock Him or honor Him? #SalvationDawns

The Response to the Cross

 

For those of you who are new to the Bible, you would expect that the telling of the story of Jesus’ death on the cross would focus on the physical suffering He endured. You would imagine it tells us all about the effect of the scourging and beating on his body, of the crown of thorns on his head, and of the nails in his hands and feet. 

 

But it doesn’t. To the new readers’ amazement, none of the four Gospel writers tells us much of anything on those subjects. The writers of the Gospels, especially Mark, focus not on a description of the suffering of Christ from his vantage point, but rather the response to Christ AS He suffered! 

 

In its brief record of the crucifixion, Scripture devotes more space to the mocking and reviling that man heaped on its Savior’s dying head than to any other single aspect.”1

 

“A facet of man’s sin nature is to mock, ridicule, and revile God; all men have this tendency. Another facet of human nature demonstrated in this section is that humanity shows no appreciation for the salvation God has provided for them.”2

 

So, the difficultly of today’s passage is not theological, nor is it because it’s filled with gruesome hard to read details; but rather, it’s difficult to read because if we are honest with ourselves, we will find it uncomfortable familiar. However, if we will be honest and allow the Holy Spirit to let us see our familiarity with this passage, then we will also see and experience the indiscernible grace that shines through it as well! 

 

Mark 15:16-41 has 6 different responses to the Gospel

 

The Roman soldiers mocked Jesus as a joke. (15:16-20)

 

16 And the soldiers led him away inside the palace (that is, the governor’s headquarters), and they called together the whole battalion.

 

There is no evidence that Herod the Great or the Roman prefects who succeeded him ever stayed at the Antonia Fortress when they were in Jerusalem. They resided, rather, in the Herodian palace, which was begun by Herod in 23 b.c. and was both larger and more luxurious than the Antonia. Josephus cannot find words adequate to describe the splendor of Herod’s large and lavish palace, “with enough bedchambers for one-hundred guests” (War 5.177–83; Ant. 15.318). Both Philo and Josephus locate the Roman governors there.”3

 

The Praetorium refers first to the elite soldiers who were the personal guard of the prefect, and then to the place where they were housed. The location of the latter is much debated.”4

 

The soldiers took Jesus to the Praetorium, which was probably a portion of Herod’s palace, and they called together the whole garrison, which was one-tenth of a Roman legion, or six hundred soldiers. So, the mockery and mistreatment that was heaped on Jesus came not from a small group but from a large crowd.”5

 

17 And they clothed him in a purple cloak, and twisting together a crown of thorns, they put it on him. 

 

Purple, the most expensive and prestigious of ancient dyes, symbolized royalty.”6

 

The soldiers clothed Jesus with a purple garment, which was the clothing color reserved for royalty; they were mocking Him for claiming to be a King.”7

 

18 And they began to salute him, “Hail, King of the Jews!” 

 

They began to salute Him in a mocking way; just as the emperor was greeted by the words, “Hail, Caesar!” the soldiers saluted Jesus by saying, “Hail, King of the Jews.””8

 

The salute, “ ‘Hail, King of the Jews,’ ” is a parody of Caesar’s salute, “Ave Caesar, victor, imperator.” The parody is foremost a mockery of Jesus, but in a lesser sense, it also mocks the Jews. Before the physical scourge of Jesus Mark notes the scorn of the soldiers toward him.”9

 

19 And they were striking his head with a reed and spitting on him and kneeling down in homage to him. 20 And when they had mocked him, they stripped him of the purple cloak and put his own clothes on him. And they led him out to crucify him.

 

What Mark is emphasizing is not the physical punishment, but rather that this physical punishment is the method of sinners to mock Jesus as a huge JOKE and as such totally belittle the very Savior they desperately need; the very Savior who is willingly laying down His life for theirs. 

Simon of Cyrene labored with Christ. (15:21)

 

21 And they compelled a passerby, Simon of Cyrene, who was coming in from the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to carry his cross.

 

It’s Passover and the streets of Jerusalem have twice the people wandering around in them that they usually do. To add insult to the one being executed and to send a message to those the Romans ruled, they chose the most crowded road possible. So, down the crowded streets comes the procession of those that are on their way to be crucified. 

 

“Whenever we crucify the guilty, the most crowded roads are chosen, where the most people can see and be moved by this fear,” approved Quintilian (Declamationes 274).”10

 

Normally, the prisoner who was to be crucified was compelled to carry his own cross to the place of execution. In fact, it was not the full cross that was carried, but only the horizontal crossbeam, which was affixed to the vertical beam at the site of the crucifixion. In any case, it is clear that Jesus was so weakened from the scourging He had endured that He was not able to carry the crossbeam Himself, and so the soldiers enlisted Simon to help.”11

 

For the Roman soldiers, this was not necessarily out of compassion but need. Christ was likely so weak, not only from the scourging but also the beating that the soldiers had just given Him, that He literally wasn’t going to be able to carry His cross all the way to Golgotha. So, they compel a man in the crowd to carry the cross of Christ for HIM – Simon of Cyrene. Cyrene was a city in what is now called Libya. It’s in northern Africa east of Egypt.

 

Interestingly,Mark also identified Simon as the father of Rufus. Paul sent greetings to a Rufus in the church at Rome (Rom. 16:13), which would have been in the middle of the decade of the 50s. Scholars largely agree that Mark mentioned Rufus because he was writing to the Christians at Rome, who would have known Rufus and his father, Simon of Cyrene.”12

 

Mark tells us that Simon, the Cyrenian, was the father of Alexander and Rufus. This was presumably pertinent to the initial addressees of Mark’s Gospel, so suggests that while bearing Jesus’ cross, Simon became conscious of Jesus’ deity and this resulted in the conversion of his sons. Cyrene was a city in the African country we today call Libya.”13

 

It is worth considering, as Schlatter observes, whether Simon’s faithfulness in carrying the cross of Jesus resulted in his sons’ participation in the faith and in the church.”14

 

So, the conclusion about Alexander and Rufus is a little bit of conjecture, but, there is no conjecture in that Simon of Cyrene is the first to labor with Christ; to do what Paul said in Philippians – fellowship with Him in His sufferings! Simon doesn’t mock Jesus, He suffers with Jesus and it appears to have made a massive impact on the lives of his children!

The Roman soldiers treated the crucifixion of Christ as nothing more than a job. (15:22-24)

 

22 And they brought him to the place called Golgotha (which means Place of a Skull). 

 

Because of Mark’s wording, some point to a rock outcropping that looks like a skull. This has proven to be a false assumption. But from a historical perspective, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre has a much greater claim to be the actual site of the crucifixion. From the earliest days of Christianity the natural rock outcropping that in Jesus’ day lay outside the walls of Jerusalem, on which the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was already erected in a.d. 335, has been venerated as the site of Jesus’ crucifixion. Excavations from 1961 to 1980 under the Church of the Holy Sepulchre have added further support to the site as the Golgotha of the Gospels.”15

 

Other scholars believe Jesus was crucified in the very spot Abraham was once given a lamb, a substitute, to sacrifice to God instead of his only son, Isaac. The crucifixion took place outside Jerusalem’s city walls, about five hundred yards from the temple, which 2 Chron 3:1 places on Mount Moriah. Surely, God had led Abraham and his beloved only son to the same spot where His beloved only Son was to die two millennia later! Why should He have chosen any other spot?”16

 

But,The precise location of Golgotha is not known, but it was not far outside the walls of Jerusalem. The reason why it was known as “Place of a Skull” is also unclear; some have suggested it was on a rocky hill that had the appearance of a skull.”17

 

So, the bottom line is that wherever it was, it was the place the Romans routinely crucified people. This was nothing more than a job to these soldiers at this point a job. They’ve had their fun with this Jew and now they just wanted to get their job done.

 

23 And they offered him wine mixed with myrrh, but he did not take it. 

 

The wine-myrrh mix was a narcotic that was given to condemned prisoners to dull their senses to the pain they were about to endure. It was one of the very few humane elements the Romans allowed.”18

 

Some scholars note a group of Jewish women who prepared this for those being crucified. Wine mixed with myrrh was a narcotic administered to dull the senses and was a charitable act performed under the auspices of a guild of women from Jerusalem. In so doing the prophecy of Ps 69:21 was fulfilled; the long sequence of prophecy fulfilled in the crucifixion had commenced, a sequence which began at the very start of the crucifixion.”19

 

24 And they crucified him and divided his garments among them, casting lots for them, to decide what each should take. 

 

“This was prophesied in Psalm 22:18.”20

 

“This scene represents the distribution of His entire earthly estate; it is significant that the recipients, His heirs if you will, were the sinful men who crucified Him.”21

 

Most people had only one set of clothes, so getting their clothing was a financial benefit. They could use it to trade for things in the market. Clothing was a valuable possession.

 

The soldiers like vultures cast lots over who was going to get the clothes of a person on a cross who was watching them cast the lots! As a person is suffering on a cross hoping to be rescued, they look down and see their clothes being divided up among people who could care less about them and thus have no intention of doing anything but making sure they die. It removed any hope that a person may find mercy! 

 

“One wonders which soldier got His sandals; they were impossible to fill.”22

 

25And it was the third hour when they crucified him. 

 

“He provides no details about this grisly act itself, simply noting that it happened at the third hour, which was 9 a.m.”23

 

As with the flogging last week, none of the Gospels tell us much about the act of crucifixion, they just abruptly tell us they crucified him. We don’t know any of the details of how they did it; all of those are assumed through historical research. 

 

Now there are plenty of details about what was going on around the cross, especially when you look at all four Gospels! Therefore, this Wednesday night in Recharge we are going to take the time to put all four accounts together including the miraculous stuff that happened the moment Jesus died! 

 

However, the point I want to make now is that once again the emphasis isn’t on the physical suffering inflicted by the specific act of dying on a cross. Mark’s point in this part of the passage is twofold, 

 

Jesus was crucified – a process of execution all the ancient readers would know all about for sure. 

 

The Roman soldiers only cared about Jesus in the context of how they could use Him for their own enjoyment! At this point, not one of the soldiers has any concern about the man on the middle cross! They are actually more concerned about who gets His clothes. 

 

Now, before you judge these men, think about how we go about life. Think about how, knowing the sacrifice Christ made for us, we find ourselves at times acting like spoiled rotten brats demanding and competing against one another for the glory that belongs to Him alone! We will find ourselves doing anything but living our lives in glad submission to Him and worshiping Him, and as such living as if Chris suffered nothing and is owed nothing!

 

The Jewish leaders were offended by Jesus. (15:26-32)

 

Verse 26 sets the stage for this offense.

 

26 And the inscription of the charge against him read, “The King of the Jews.” 27And with him they crucified two robbers, one on his right and one on his left. 29 And those who passed by derided him, wagging their heads and saying, “Aha! You who would destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, 30 save yourself, and come down from the cross!” 31 So also the chief priests with the scribes mocked him to one another, saying, “He saved others; he cannot save himself. 32 Let the Christ, the King of Israel, come down now from the cross that we may see and believe.” Those who were crucified with him also reviled him.

 

Of the two robbers, “Their presence at the crucifixion is viewed as a fulfillment of Isa 53:12, “he was numbered with transgressors.”24

 

Of the crowd, who is likely comprised entirely of religious Jews, many of whom may even be from out of town, but all of whom are there celebrating the most important Holiday in Jewish life – Passover. They, as well as the religious leaders, are in a season that is supposed to lead them to love and trust GOD; to praise HIM! Instead, “The “hurled insults” of v. 29 (so the NIV) are called “blasphemy” in the original Greek. Blasphēmia is used almost exclusively in both Greek and biblical literature of evil speech against God; by implication, the derision hurled at Jesus is blasphemy against God—making the chief priests and scribes guilty of the very thing Jesus was condemned for by the Sanhedrin (14:64)!”25

 

“The chief priests and scribes see Jesus’ inability to save himself as a refutation of his status as Son of God. “ ‘He saved others,’ ” they taunt, ‘but he can’t save himself!’ ” 26

 

Note, the mockery at this point comes from the ones being crucified with Him as well. “The chorus of scorn includes even those who suffer the same fate as Jesus (v. 32).”27

 

The point I want you to see is this. The Religious leaders have been offended by Jesus from Day 1, and ironically when they come to the cross Pilate has placed a sign above his head that not only makes a mockery of Jesus (some King this is naked and dying on a Roman cross), but also a mockery of the Jewish people – thus Pilate put, “King of the Jews.”

 

This infuriated the Jewish people and leaders, and very likely added to their desire to mock Jesus. For the religious leaders, it probably added to their insistence to make sure everybody around them knew they wanted nothing to do with Jesus!

 

What a telling sign of religion! Religion doesn’t want a naked, bloody Jesus that pays for ALL our sins; it wants a Jesus that gives us a religion we can be proud of, that is, proud of ourselves and the status we achieved! 

 

Religion doesn’t want a savior that calls for us to surrender His life to Him and others as He surrendered His life for us! No, religion wants a god (emphasis on little “g”) that is going to surrender Himself to us; a god we can control; a god who is amazed at all the works we believe we have accomplished! Religion mocks the gospel because the gospel is a stumbling block to it; it is an offense to it!

God the Father turned His back on the Son! (15:33-37)

 

33 And when the sixth hour had come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour. 34 And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?” which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” 

 

“At the climax of that period of darkness, Jesus cried in agony—not the agony of the scourging or the agony of the thorns and nails, but the agony of forsakenness.”28

 

“This is the only time the Gospels report Jesus using the address ‘God’; He invariably used ‘Father,’ even in His first recorded words (Luke 2:49). The Old Testament uses ‘God’ to indicate God’s role as sovereign and judge of all humanity and ‘Lord’ for His relationship with believers; Jesus introduced the intimate title, ‘Father.’ Here Jesus could only use the sinner’s title for God, for God had become His judge as Jesus had become all sin (2 Cor 5:21).”29

 

This is the testimony of the true suffering of Christ. Jesus takes upon Himself the sins of the World and as such, the Eternal Son, who has been perfectly and eternally Loved by the Father, experiences all the wrath of God on our sin! He experiences the consequence of sin as our substitute! 

 

The Son literally feels the separation caused by sin; He experiences not just death but eternal death! He feels and experiences the separation that is the wrath of God on our sin; He feels and experiences all the Hell, all the shame, all the guilt, and all the judgment of a Holy God on every sin of every human being that ever existed and that will ever exist! 

 

35 And some of the bystanders hearing it said, “Behold, he is calling Elijah.” 36 And someone ran and filled a sponge with sour wine, put it on a reed, and gave it to him to drink, saying, “Wait, let us see whether Elijah will come to take him down.” 

 

We are going to talk about this more Wednesday night at Recharge but for now, just note that “The offering of vinegar was a fulfillment of the prophecy of Ps 69:21. So even Christ’s last moments fulfilled Old Testament prophecy.”30

 

But what another gruesome picture of how we respond to the cross! Jesus is crying out in eternal agony and these people are wanting to keep him alive as long as possible to see if Elijah will come and save Him! The selfishness and twisted sense of what was actually happening on the cross is sadly reflective of the response at times in our own lives.

 

But their attempts fail and to humanities credit! Look what happened next,

 

37And Jesus uttered a loud cry and breathed his last. 38 And the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom.

 

Then Jesus chose to die, as Matt 27:50 records and Mark 15:44 confirms, for He, of His own volition, gave up His spirit. His life was not taken from Him; He dismissed His own soul; He laid down His life voluntarily.”31

 

“On linguistic grounds, the torn katapetasma of v. 38 would appear to be the curtain before the Holy of Holies. If this is the curtain intended, then its destruction signifies that at the death of Jesus the veil between God and humanity is removed. The Holy of Holies, which was believed to contain the very presence of Yahweh, is made accessible not by the high priest’s sacrifice on the Day of Atonement, but by the atonement of Jesus on the cross.”32

 

“The veil separated fallen humanity from the sacred Holy of Holies in the temple. In effect, it separated men from God. It was a thick woven veil, but all three of the Synoptic Gospels report that at the moment Jesus died, it was suddenly torn from top to bottom, and that wall of separation was pierced.”33

 

How crazy it must have been for the Priests working the temple that day, the day before Passover, to suddenly see this huge curtain tear in half and open for them a place that most would never see! And herein is the point! Jesus is our substitute! There had never been an offering given in the temple that was sufficient to pay the debt and set us free! There had never been blood offered that could suffer our debt and establish an eternal covenant between us and God! 

 

But Christ’s death did! Christ, the spotless and perfect eternal lamb of God, took our place, and as such, the veil that separated us from God, the judgment of God on our sin that made us unworthy of being in His presence, much less being His Child; was torn in half and removed! 

A pagan centurion believed! – 15:39

 

39 And when the centurion, who stood facing him, saw that in this way he breathed his last, he said, “Truly this man was the Son of God!” 40 There were also women looking on from a distance, among whom were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses, and Salome. 41 When he was in Galilee, they followed him and ministered to him, and there were also many other women who came up with him to Jerusalem.

 

We know from John’s account that he was standing near the cross with Christ’s mother, but it appears none of the other disciples of Jesus were anywhere near the crucifixion, they were all hiding! 

 

But besides John and the Mother of Jesus, the only other followers of Jesus that we know were at the crucifixion were these women off at a distance. They were clearly there grieving for, and with Jesus, as He suffered. We are going to learn more about some of them next week so for now, let’s move on to the bigger point in verse 39!

 

““The Son of God” is Mark’s load-bearing christological title, which until this moment has remained unconfessed by any human being. The centurion is the first person in the Gospel to confess Jesus as the Son of God, and the confession is evoked by his passion—his suffering and death on the cross.”34

 

What a glorious moment! The man who led the team of Roman soldiers who had been mocking Jesus and treating him like an object for their entertainment now realizes Jesus is not a Jewish King but something much, much bigger – He is the son of God! 

 

Challenge: Does your response to Jesus openly mock Him, silently mock Him or honor Him? 

 

The Jews said he’s not the Messiah, the Romans just didn’t care, the women poured their hearts out, a centurion converted, but His best friends were nowhere to be found (minus John). 

 

We all should understand what it means to openly mock Jesus as well as to honor Him. I want to make sure you understand what it means to subtly mock Him. Do you notice what’s absent from Mark’s account the Disciples! Their absence is a subtle mocking of Jesus! We subtly mock Jesus when we claim to be one of His followers but we never show up on the game day. 

 

We say Jesus is important but then do nothing in our actual lives that acknowledges Him as God! We disregard, compartmentalize, and flat-out ignore Him. We pay him courtesy by saying hello to Him in the room but with no intention of prioritizing Him. 

 

We are the cool kids who want to maintain a reputation with the teachers, so we speak to the left-out kid in the corner in a way that makes the teacher think we are awesome, but we stand silent while people bully that same kid!

 

But think about this, silent mockery is the worst kind. Imagine your back in middle school and you and your best friend are walking down the hall and all of a sudden, a group of people come up and start shoving your best friend around and embarrassing him. 

 

Certainly, jumping in to defend your friend would be expected, and betraying your friend by joining in with the bullying would not be expected. Switching teams would obviously devastate your friend! 

 

However, there is something that hurts even worse than betrayal. Imagine if you just stood there and did nothing! Imagine if you refused to acknowledge it was even happening. Imagine if he saw that you were doing nothing to stop it; you weren’t defending him or even attempting to redirect the attack/change the subject, but rather just stood there watching while he got beat up physically and emotionally.

 

You see silence can hurt worse sometimes! 

 

In the church, people want to be labeled as a follower of Christ by other Christians, but when they get outside the church they don’t want anybody to know it anymore. They don’t want it known because they don’t actually love Jesus, they just love being accepted by those that do. 

 

They love volunteering and doing things that make them feel valuable or fulfill a purpose, but they don’t actually have a personal relationship with Christ whereby they are blown away by His love for them. They don’t love being loved by Jesus, they love being loved by other Christians.

 

There are even some who want it to be known by nonbelievers that they are Christians but they have no actual relationship with Christ. They have no desire to obey Jesus and live in submission to Him, they just want people to refer to them as a Christian, or vote for them because they claim to be a Christian, or hire them or marry them or a litany of possible motives!

 

This is mockery by silence. It’s a passive way of totally mocking Jesus! 

 

I’ve heard people say Hudson Taylor said, “He is Lord of all or not Lord at all.” Let me be clear, your response to Jesus doesn’t make Him Lord; He is Lord. But, be sure, He will not be acknowledged as anything but Lord of all!

Footnotes

  1. Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mt 27:39–Lk 23:43). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
  2. Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mt 27:39–Lk 23:43). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
  3. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 466). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  4. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 465). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  5. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 399). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  6. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 466). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  7. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 399). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  8. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 399). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  9. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (pp. 466–467). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  10. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 468). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  11. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, pp. 399–400). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  12. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 400). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  13. Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mt 27:31–Jn 19:17). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
  14. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 470). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  15. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (pp. 470–471). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  16. Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mt 27:33–Jn 19:18). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
  17. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 400). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  18. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 400). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  19. Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mt 27:33–Jn 19:18). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
  20. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 400). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  21. Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mt 27:35–Jn 19:24). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
  22. Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mt 27:35–Jn 19:24). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
  23. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 400). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  24. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 472). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  25. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 473). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  26. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 473). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  27. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 474). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  28. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 402). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  29. Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mt 27:45–Lk 23:45a). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
  30. Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mt 27:48–Jn 19:30). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
  31. Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mt 27:48–Jn 19:30). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
  32. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 478). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.
  33. Sproul, R. C. (2011). Mark (First Edition, p. 405). Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust.
  34. Edwards, J. R. (2002). The Gospel according to Mark (p. 479). Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos.